Increased levels are most commonly associated with diabetes mellitus. Slightly increased Fasting and Normal PP Glucose levels may be observed in persons taking late dinner. Other causes for increased levels are hyperactivity of thyroid, pituitary or adrenal glands. Decreased levels though rare are usually observed in cases of over-dosage of insulin and in rare endocrinological disorders.
Increased levels are most commonly associated with Kidney disease. Increase is also observed in dehydration, diabetic coma, hyper adrenal crisis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and circulatory collapse.
Increased levels are associated with impaired kidney function.
Increased Uric Acid level is mostly associated with gout. Increase is also found in severe kidney damage, toxemia of pregnancy and in leukemia.
Increased levels are commonly associated with dehydration, low salt intake and rare endocrinological disorders. Decreased levels are observed in nephrotic syndrome, hypoproteinemia, cardiac failure, hepatic failure and hypothyroidism.
Increased levels are associated with renal failure due to nephritis, urinary obstruction, metabolic or respiratory acidosis and hemolysis of blood. Decreased levels are found in diarrhea, vomiting, inadequate intake, malabsorption, severe burns and increased secretion of aldosterone.
Increased levels are associated with dehydration, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperventilation, anemia and cardiac decompensation. Decreased levels are found in diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, pyloric obstruction, severe burns, heat exhaustion, diabetic acidosis, Addison’s disease and acute infections.
Increased levels of Bilirubin in adults are most commonly associated with infections of liver i.e. infective hepatitis. However, increase is also observed in hemolytic disorders in adults and newborns.
SGOT / SGPT( Transaminases)
Amongst transaminases, SGOT is predominantly associated with heart and SGPT is associated with liver. Increased levels of SGOT with almost normal SGPT are usually associated with myocardial infarction, which becomes evident within 4-6 hours after onset of pain and peaking after 24-36 hours. High levels of both SGOT and SGPT are mostly associated with liver cell damage (hepatitis).
Increased levels are usually associated with chronic alcoholism and obstructive liver diseases. Elevated levels are also associated with Dilantin therapy.
Increased levels are most consistently associated with liver and bone diseases. Moderate elevation may be associated with Hodgkin’s disease, congestive heart failure, hyperparathyroidism, intestinal disease and intra- abdominal bacterial infections.
Increased levels are observed in cases of dehydration. In all other situations high values usually reflect one or more globulin fractions. Decreased protein levels are consistently related to a low albumin concentration.
Low levels are associated with liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition & protein losing enteropathies. High levels are consistent with dehydration. Low Alb/Glob ratio is found in cirrhosis and other liver diseases, chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome, myeloma, collagen diseases, severe infections and inflammatory states.
Decreased levels are observed in cases of rickets, hypopara- thyroidism, nephrosis, nephritis & calcium losing syndromes. Increased levels are associated with hyperparathyroidism, metastatic bone lesions and hypervitaminosis D.
Increased levels are associated with chronic nephritis, rising as renal failure progresses and in hypoparathyroidism as well as hypervitaminosis D. Decreased levels are observed in patients with rickets, osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism.
Increased levels of the enzyme become evident 8-12 hours after myocardial infarction reaching a maximum 4-5 days later. Moderate increase also observed in cases of liver disease, untreated pernicious anemia, renal disease, malignancy and progressive muscular dystrophy.
Increased levels are usually associated with atherosclerosis which ultimately leads to heart attack. It may also increase in diabetes mellitus and myxedema. Decreased levels are most commonly observed in patients having lipid-lowering drugs (statins etc). Decreased levels are also observed in cases of hyperthyroidism, certain anemias and malabsorption.
Increased levels lead to coronary artery disease. They are also associated with diabetes mellitus, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism and liver diseases. Decreased values are commonly observed in persons on lipid-lowering medicines, hyperthyroidism and cachectic states.
Individuals with low Cholesterol, low Triglycerides and high HDL have low risk for development of coronary arterial disease. Low HDL Cholesterol is an important predictor of risk of coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Factors contributing to decreased HDL Cholesterol include lack of exercise, genetic factors, cigarette smoking and obesity.
High LDL Cholesterol is a direct risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis.
Since VLDL Cholesterol is the precursor for LDL, high levels of VLDL are a direct risk for coronary atherosclerosis.
TLC-Total Leukocyte Count
Increased levels are usually found in bacterial infections, toxic metabolic processes and leukemic states. There is moderate progressive leukocytosis throughout pregnancy. However, decreased leukocyte counts are observed in viral infections, in persons on chemotherapy, certain leukemic states and a few bone-marrow disorders.
DLC-Differential Leukocyte Count
Determination of differential leukocyte count is done to establish type of infection and classify leukemia.
TRBCCt-Total Red Blood Cell Count
Decrease in RBC count is observed as a result of red cell loss by bleeding/ hemolysis or failure of marrow production leading to anemia. Increased TRBC levels are associated with polycythemia and individuals residing at high altitudes.
RED BLOOD CELL INDICES
Evaluation of Red Cell Indices is done to diagnose and classify anemias. It is possible to differentiate Iron Deficiency, Thalassemia Trait, B12 and Folate Deficiency, etc on the basis of RBC indices. RDW is typically elevated in Iron Deficiency anemia while usually normal in beta Thalassemia Trait which is very common in north India.
Decreased levels are associated with pregnancy, Hemoglobinopathies, malnutrition and old age. Increased levels are found in patients suffering from polycythemia and in persons residing at high altitudes.
Decreased levels are commonly found in viral infections (Dengue etc) and ITP. Low Platelet counts are also observed in persons suffering from malignancies and in patients on chemotherapy. Increased levels may be observed in myeloproliferative diseases.
A very commonly ordered, nonspecific test, which is increased in large number of conditions.
BLOOD GROUP & RHESUS FACTOR
Blood group remains same throughout the life. However, awareness of ones own blood group is important for blood donors, recipients and expectant mothers.
Urinalysis though considered a simple test but if performed properly reveals large number of diseases. Urinalysis is very important to detect urinary tract infections, diabetes disease and complications, jaundice, renal stones etc.
TSH-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
It is a very important screening test to detect a very common thyroid disorder, which is found almost in every 5th woman above the age of 40 years. Decreased levels are found in hyperthyroidism.
High Homocysteine levels correlate to the extent of Atherosclerotic Plaque in the aorta. Homocysteine can impair the ability to repair vascular endothelial cell injury and thus promote the development of Atherosclerosis. It is possible to reduce its level with a course of simple vitamins thus avoiding heart attacks.
This test is capable of evaluating 10-12 weeks of glucose control. Patients having HbA1C level of >8.0% have very high risk of developing long-term complications in eye (retinopathy), kidney (nephropathy), nervous system (neuropathy) and heart (cardiopathy).
This is a simple urine test, which detects renal complications very early especially in persons suffering from diabetes. Persons having persistent increased microalbumin ultimately may develop diabetic nephropathy.
C-Reactive Protein is one of the “acute phase” proteins, the serum or plasma levels of which rise during a general, unspecific response to infections and non-infectious inflammatory processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease.